* Service de Santé des Armées
Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of human infectious diseases, including malaria, dengue and filariasis. Every year more than 1 million individuals in the world die from mosquito-borne diseases. With the identification and emergence of borrelioses and rickettsial diseases, ticks have also been recognized to have major effects on public health. In the last decade, the recent epidemic of West Nile virus in USA and the Chikungunya and Zika viruses outbreaks are some examples of the expansion of vector-borne diseases (VBD) in New World areas. The rapid risk changes in VBD indicate that dissemination is now a global problem. Research studies on arthropods and arthropod-borne diseases are essential. In team 5, three main themes have been developed: Medical entomology, Detection and Surveillance of tropical and Imported vector borne diseases, Survey and prevention of arthropod borne diseases in the homeless. Researchers in the team were involved in 1 to 3 themes, linked to their research activity in the context of their position at hospital in medical units or / and in the laboratory. In this context, at the end of the 2011-2016, a new field of research emerged, that is Inovative approaches to understand and control Hospital Acquired Infections.
1) Medical entomology
Medical entomology is focused upon insects and other arthropods that impact human health. It is mixed with veterinary entomology and represents a « one health » paradigm. It includes scientific research on the identification, behavior, ecology, and epidemiology of arthropod disease vectors, and their associated microorganisms. Our research in medical entomology has been organized in supported by the creation of a insectarium and an increased number of laboratory reared arthopods species.
In 2011, only 2 species of tick vectors (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick and Dermacentor marginatus), and the human body lice were maintain in the laboratory. In 2016, a total of 6 tick species vectors of spotted fever group rickettsioses (including 1 species infected by rickettsiae and maintained in BLS3 conditions), 1 flea (Ctenocephalides felis, the cat flea, a vector of Rickettsia felis), 4 bugs (Cimex lectularius, Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, Platymeris biguttatus), 3 mosquito vectors (Aedes albopictus, a vector of chikungunya virus, Anopheles gambiae, the main vector of human malaria, An. stephensi the vector of murine malaria). Particularly we have developped artificial feeding to eliminate the use of laboratory animals and enable the use of a variety of blood diets (1).
b) The use of arthropod to increment the repertoire of microorganisms and survey vector-borne agents
Screening arthropods by molecular biology using specific broad range primers and culture the detected agent, particularly if it is a new microorganism, is one approach that has been used in our team for years. We collect arthropods in the field worldwide (by our selves our through collaborators or international students who are coming with specimens collected in their countries) and detect by PCR bacteria, including bacteria of unknown pathogenicity. This approach completes the repertoire of arthropod borne bacteria known in a specific place. It can be the first step to develop experimental models (ie., the detection of R. felis in An. gambiae mosquitoes) to test the vector competence of an arthropod to transmit a microorganism. During the 2011-2016 period we have tested arthropods from Europe, Africa and Asia. We also tested a large series of ticks removed from patients. The publications issued from this research have been listed in Annex 6 (2-39). This approached has been transferred to URMITE – Team 12 in Algeria and our collaborative results and publications are reported in the team 12 section.
c) Development of experimental models for a better understanding of interactions between arthropods, humans and microorganisms
Our first experimental models in the 2011-2016 period, were used to study tick – rickettsiae interactions (41-43) as we did anteriorly. After having obtained laboratory colonies of cat fleas, using the so called “artificial dog”, we have demonstrated that these arthropods were potential vectors of Bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever transmitted by body lice (43). Also, the detection of bacteria in arthropods lead to ussuspect that these arthropods may be vectors, but this need to demonstrated. Such query happened when we detected B. quintana, was detected in bed bugs, Cimex lectularius that we received from Burundi. To demonstrate the vector competence of bed bugs, the fisrt step was to rear laboratory colonies after having collected some specimens in the field using an adapted high-performance vacuum cleaner (44). Then we demonstrated its potential vector competence of bed bugs for B. quintana (45). Sometimes, epidemiological data lead us to design experimental model. This was the case for R. felis. Indeed,a growing number of recent reports have implicated Rickettsia felis as a human pathogen, paralleling the increasing detection of R. felis in arthropod hosts across the globe, primarily in fleas and our team contributed to the knowledge of the distribution of R. felis. We also reported the high prevalence of R. felis infection in patients with “fever of unknown origin” in malaria-endemic areas. Also, R. felis was detected in mosquitoes including Anopheles spp. In Sub-Saharan Africa. Then, in our experiemental model, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the primary malarial vectors in sub-Saharan Africa, were fed with either blood meal infected with R. felis or infected cellular media administered in membrane feeding systems. In addition, a group of mosquitoes was fed on R. felis-infected BALB/c mice. The acquisition and persistence of R. felis in mosquitoes was demonstrated by quantitative PCR detection of the bacteria up to day 15 postinfection. R. felis was detected in mosquito feces up to day 14. Furthermore, R. felis was visualized by immunofluorescence in salivary glands, in and around the gut, and in the ovaries, although no vertical transmission was observed. R. felis was also found in the cotton used for sucrose feeding after the mosquitoes were fed infected blood. Natural bites from R. felis-infected An. gambiae were able to cause transient rickettsemias in mice, indicating that this mosquito species has the potential to be a vector of R. felis infection. This study was published in 2015 in PNAS (46).
d) Development and use of innovative tools to identify arthropods, their blood meal and the associated microorganisms
Identification of arthropods, their blood meal ad the microorganisms they carry are essential to fight against vector borne diseases. Arthropod species including tick and mosquito vectors can be morphologically identified using taxonomic keys for endemic species in several geographic regions. However, morphological identification can be difficult because it requires some entomological expertise, and it is difficult to identify a specimen that is damaged or at an immature stage of its life cycle. Molecular methods have been developed to identify arthropods, but there is currently no PCR assay that can distinguish tick species, and ideal PCR primer pairs that can amplify the relevant gene fragments are not available. In addition to the technical and logistical drawbacks of PCR assays, this approach is further limited by the availability of gene sequences in GenBank.
Protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI- TOF MS) is now increasingly common for the routine identification of microorganisms in clinical microbiology. This revolutionary, reliable, and cost-effective technique is simpler and faster than conventional phenotypic and molecular methods for the identification of human pathogens.The MALDI-TOF MS approach was first applied to arthropods for the differentiation of Drosophila species. It was found that protein extracts obtained from whole specimens generated repro- ducible spectra. In the recent years, we have used the MALDI-TOF MS approach as a tool to identify arthropods to the species level through several step: arthropod identification (morphological plus molecular), determination of body part compartment (the smallest), optimization and evaluation of sample preparation, creation (using dedicated software; with several representative spectra per species selected for their consistency and reproducibility) and validation of a reference spectra database, blind tests. We have successfully developed this technology to identify ticks (47), mosquitoes including adults (48,49) and larvae (50), fleas (51), and we have transferred this technology to Senegal and Algeria were it has been used to identify culicoides (52) and phlebotomine (53) sand flies and respectively. More recently, we have successfully used MALDI-TOF for detection the of microorganisms in arthropods. Indeed, we have been able to differentiate Borrelia and / or rickettsiae infected and non infected ticks (54, 55), using only tick legs or ticks hemolymph (56). The dual identification of arthropod species and infectious status at the same time by MALDI-TOF might be revolutionary for vector monitoring and entomological diagnosis. Finally, we have successfully tested the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS for the rapid identification of blood meal sources from engorged mosquitoes (57).
2) Detection and Surveillance of tropical vector borne diseases
In the context of our involvement as Director of the WHO collaborative center (2011-2015), as well as our situation of reference hospital unit in infectious diseases and tropical medicine, we have conducted and / or be involved in several studies or sentinel events. In the field of rickettsiology, we have contributed to the description of new rickettsia or emerging rickettsioses occurring in France (such as R. mongolitimonae), Europe, Asia, Oceania and Africa, particularly in Algeria (58-71). We have also studied other arthropod borne diseases such as tick-borne borrelioses and dirofilaria (72-76) and contributed to decipher the causes of fever of unknown origin (77-80).
3) Detection and Surveillance of imported vector borne diseases – travel medicine
As reference hospital unit to take care about ill returned travellers, we have been involved in the report of major sentinel events, and studies in the field of travel medicine (81-109). Starting with an interest for vector borne travel related diseases, we have been involved more generally in the field of travel medicine including in specific populations.
As directors of international networks of surveillance of travel related diseases (Geosentinel, EuroTravnet), we have been leader on several international multi-centrical surveillance studies including animal-related injuries requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in travelers, elderly travelers, schistosomiasis acquired in Corsica, sarcocystis in Tioman, Profile of illness in European travelers and in travelers to the Indian Ocean Islands and were also involved in other surveys including STD, Chagas, malaria, diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis, travelers to Liberia, Sierra leone and Guinea, severe diseases, migrants (110-126).
These surveys serve a basis for recommendations at pre-travel advice and for the strategy toward the assessment of diseases among international travelers. GeoSentinel and EuroTravNet studies are considered a major source of evidence based medicine in the field of travel medicine.
We conducted specific survey in Hajj pilgrims including demographics, vaccination status, knowledge, aptitude and practice, syndromic surveillance, microbiological survey and drug-resistance surveys forming a strong basis of knowledge in the field of Hajj medicine. Marseille is considered the leader team in Europe in this research area and have developed strong relationships with colleagues in Saudi Arabia (127-153).
We also conducted several survey in population exposed to potentially rabid animals providing basis for risk assessment and recommendation of rabies preventive vaccination in international travelers (154-165).
The success of this topic of research, wich is now much larger than vector-borne diseases lead us to propose to create and new team call “Surveillance: Clinical, epimiological and genomic approachs “ in the next 4 years plan.
4) Survey and prevention of arthropod borne diseases in the homeless.
During this period we investigated strategies to eradicate lice in homeless. We showed and characterized the resistance of lice to perithenoïd (166) we made a clinical trial with impregnated clothes showing that permethrin should not be used anymore because of its strong capability to select resistance (167). We show that head and body lice on homeless have the same genotype (168) and finally we develop molecular tools to distinguish head and body louse (169) which lead us later to demonstrate that Bartonella quintana is specific to body louse (170). Finally the origin of the body and head louse was redefined. Homeless are particularly exposed to infectious agent. We report that the high prevalence of Tropheryma whipplei in homeless strongly suggest that the transmission occurs in shelters (171) as were transmitted a number of respiratory viruses during the winter period (172).
5) Inovative approaches to understand and control Hospital Acquired Infections
During 2012 and 2015 a new field of research was developed driven by the public health need to control hospital acquired infection. It began early 2012 by developing a new RFID based microchip tracking technology for hand hygiene (173). This new technology open a new field of research by bringing a more accurate monitoring system and will likely modify the normative in hand hygiene. New technologies are under development to fight against catheter infection. These R&D programs have been successfully funded by APRF in 2011 and 2016, ANR in 2015, IHU and BPI in 2014. The successful features lead to create a Start Up Medihandtrace SAS in April 2015. In parallels we involved in this new approach two collaborations one with the human and social sciences to investigated the behavior of health care workers facing these new technology (174) and one with the theoretical physic institute to investigate with innovative technology microorganism s pathway of transmission within hospital (175). The team is currently made of 1 PUPH, 1 MCUPH , 1 DR in HSS , 1 PHD fellow nurse, 1 PhD fellow Anthropologist, 2 master student and the R&D team of the start up (4 people). This success lead us to propose to create and new team call “Inovative approaches to understand and control Hospital Acquired Infections “ in the next 4 years plan. This team will be developed with the MEPHI new UMR.
References for URMITE - Team 5 2011 - 2015
40. Socolovschi C, Gaudart J, Bitam I, Huynh TP, Raoult D, Parola P. Why are there so few Rickettsia conorii conorii-infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in the wild? PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2012; 6:e1697.
41. Vu Hai V, Pages F, Boulanger N, Audebert S, Parola P, Almeras L. Immunoproteomic identification of antigenic salivary biomarkers detected by Ixodes ricinus-exposed rabbit sera. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4(5):459-68.
42. Politi FA, de Souza-Moreira TM, Rodrigues ER, de Queiroz GM, Figueira GM, Januário AH, Berenger JM, Socolovschi C, Parola P, Pietro RC. Chemical characterization and acaricide potential of essential oil from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806). Parasitol Res. 2013;112(6):2261-8.
43. Kernif T, Leulmi H, Socolovschi C, Berenger JM, Lepidi H, Bitam I, Rolain JM, Raoult D, Parola P. Acquisition and excretion of Bartonella quintana by the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis. Mol Ecol. 2014;23:1204-12.
44. Bérenger JM, Almeras L, Leulmi H, Parola P. A High-Performance Vacuum Cleaner for Bed Bug Sampling: A Useful Tool for Medical Entomology. J Med Entomol. 2015 ;52:513-5.
45. Leulmi H, Bitam I, Berenger JM, Lepidi H, Rolain JM, Almeras L, Raoult D, Parola P. Competence of Cimex lectularius Bed Bugs for the Transmission of Bartonella quintana, the Agent of Trench Fever. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9(5):e0003789.
46. Dieme C, Bechah Y, Socolovschi C, Audoly G, Berenger JM, Faye O, Raoult D, Parola P. Transmission potential of Rickettsia felis infection by Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:8088-93.
MALDI TOF and arthropods
47. Yssouf A, Flaudrops C, Drali R, Kernif T, Socolovschi C, Berenger JM, Raoult D, Parola P. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of tick vectors. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51(2):522-8.
48. Yssouf A, Socolovschi C, Flaudrops C, Ndiath MO, Sougoufara S, Dehecq JS, Lacour G, Berenger JM, Sokhna CS, Raoult D, Parola P. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization--time of flight mass spectrometry: an emerging tool for the rapid identification of mosquito vectors. PLoS One. 2013 15;8(8):e72380.
49. Yssouf A, Parola P, Lindström A, Lilja T, L'Ambert G, Bondesson U, Berenger JM, Raoult D, Almeras L. Identification of European mosquito species by MALDI-TOF MS. Parasitol Res. 2014;113:2375-8.
50. Dieme C, Yssouf A, Vega-Rúa A, Berenger JM, Failloux AB, Raoult D, Parola P, Almeras L. Accurate identification of Culicidae at aquatic developmental stages by MALDI-TOF MS profiling. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:544.
51. Yssouf A, Socolovschi C, Leulmi H, Kernif T, Bitam I, Audoly G, Almeras L, Raoult D, Parola P. Identification of flea species using MALDI-TOF/MS. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014;37:153-7.
52. Sambou M, Aubadie-Ladrix M, Fenollar F, Fall B, Bassene H, Almeras L, Sambe-Ba B, Perrot N, Chatellier S, Faye N, Parola P, Wade B, Raoult D, Mediannikov O. Comparison of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and molecular biology techniques for identification of Culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) biting midgesin senegal. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53:410-8.
53. Lafri I, Almeras L, Bitam I, Caputo A, Yssouf A, Forestier CL, Izri A, Raoult D, Parola P. Identification of Algerian Field-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors by MALDI-TOF MS. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10:e0004351.
54. Fotso Fotso A, Mediannikov O, Diatta G, Almeras L, Flaudrops C, Parola P, Drancourt M. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry detection of pathogens in vectors: the Borrelia crocidurae/Ornithodoros sonrai paradigm. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e2984.
55. Yssouf A, Almeras L, Berenger JM, Laroche M, Raoult D, Parola P. Identification of tick species and disseminate pathogen using hemolymph by MALDI-TOF MS. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2015;6:579-86.
56. Yssouf A, Almeras L, Terras J, Socolovschi C, Raoult D, Parola P. Detection of Rickettsia spp in ticks by MALDI-TOF MS. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 : 6;9(2):e0003473.
57. Niare S, Berenger JM, Dieme C, Doumbo O, Raoult D, Parola P, Almeras L. Identification of blood meal sources in the main African malaria mosquito vector by MALDI-TOF MS. Malar J. 2016 Feb 13;15(1):87.
Detection and Surveillance of Mediterranean and tropical vector borne diseases
58. Bhengsri S, Baggett HC, Edouard S, Dowell SF, Dasch GA, Fisk TL, Raoult D, Parola P. Sennetsu Neorickettsiosis, Spotted Fever Group, and Typhus Group Rickettsioses in Three Provinces in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 May 2. pii: 15-0752. Zaharia M, Popescu CP, Florescu SA, Ceausu E, Raoult D, Parola P, Socolovschi C. Rickettsia massiliae infection and SENLAT syndrome in Romania. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016 Mar 18. pii: S1877-959X(16)30044-9.
59. Lau C, Musso D, Fournier PE, Parola P, Raoult D, Weinstein P. Absence of serological evidence of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. And Coxiella burnetii infections in American Samoa. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016. pii: S1877-959X(16)30033-4.
60. Balleydier E, Camuset G, Socolovschi C, Moiton MP, Kuli B, Foucher A, Poubeau P, Borgherini G, Wartel G, Audin H, Raoult D, Filleul L, Parola P, Pagès F. Murine typhus, Reunion, France, 2011-2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:316-9.
61. Musso D, Broult J, Parola P, Raoult D, Fournier PE. Absence of antibodies to Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Tahiti, French Polynesia. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:255
62. Solary J, Socolovschi C, Aubry C, Brouqui P, Raoult D, Parola P. Detection of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae by Using Cutaneous Swab Samples and Quantitative PCR. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:716-8.
63. Edouard S, Bhengsri S, Dowell SF, Watt G, Parola P, Raoult D. Two human cases of Rickettsia felis infection, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1780-1.
64. Edouard S, Parola P, Socolovschi C, Davoust B, La Scola B, Raoult D. Clustered cases of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae infection, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):337-8.
65. Angelakis E, Munasinghe A, Yaddehige I, Liyanapathirana V, Thevanesam V, Bregliano A, Socolovschi C, Edouard S, Fournier PE, Raoult D, Parola P. Detection of rickettsioses and Q fever in Sri Lanka. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012; 86:711-712.
66. Renvoise A, Delaunay P, Blanchouin E, Cannavo I, Cua E, Socolovschi C, Parola P, Raoult D. Urban family cluster of spotted fever rickettsiosis linked to Rhipicephalus sanguineus infected with Rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia and Rickettsia massiliae. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2012; 3:389-392.
67. Mouffok N, Socolovschi C, Benabdellah A, Renvoise A, Parola P, Raoult D. Diagnosis of rickettsioses from eschar swab samples, Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17:1968-1969.
68. Murphy H, Renvoise A, Pandey P, Parola P, Raoult D. Rickettsia honei infection in human, Nepal, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17:1865-1867.
69. Kuloglu F, Rolain JM, Akata F, Eroglu C, Celik AD, Parola P. Mediterranean spotted fever in the Trakya region of Turkey. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2012; 3:298-304.
70. Socolovschi C, Renvoise A, Brouqui P, Parola P, Raoult D. The use of eschar swabs for the diagnosis of African tick-bite fever. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2012; 3:361-363.
71. Eldin C, Mediannikov O, Davoust B, Cabre O, Barre N, Raoult D, Parola P. Emergence of Rickettsia africae, Oceania. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17:100-102.
72. Benzaquen M, Brajon D, Delord M, Yin N, Bittar F, Toga I, Berbis P, Parola P. Cutaneous and pulmonary dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens. Br J Dermatol. 2015 Apr 27. [Epub ahead of print]
73. Mary C, Foissac M, Million M, Parola P, Piarroux R. In response. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(11):1905.
74. Foissac M, Million M, Mary C, Dales JP, Souraud JB, Piarroux R, Parola P. Subcutaneous infection with Dirofilaria immitis nematode in human, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(1):171-2.
75. Socolovschi C, Honnorat E, Consigny PH, Dougados J, Passeron A, Parola P, Raoult D. Tick-borne relapsing fever with cutaneous eschar and radiculopathy, Ethiopia. J Travel Med 2012; 19:261-263.
76. Parola P, Diatta G, Socolovschi C, Mediannikov O, Tall A, Bassene H, Trape JF, Raoult D. Tick-borne relapsing fever borreliosis, rural senegal. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17:883-885.
77. Elfving K, Shakely D, Andersson M, Baltzell K, Ali AS, Bachelard M, Falk KI, Ljung A, Msellem MI, Omar RS, Parola P, Xu W, Petzold M, Trollfors B, Björkman A,Lindh M, Mårtensson A. Acute Uncomplicated Febrile Illness in Children Aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar - Aetiologies, Antibiotic Treatment and Outcome. PLoS One. 2016 Jan 28;11(1):e0146054. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone
78. Mayxay M, Sengvilaipaseuth O, Chanthongthip A, Dubot-Pérès A, Rolain JM, Parola P, Craig SB, Tulsiani S, Burns MA, Khanthavong M, Keola S, Pongvongsa T, Raoult D, Dittrich S, Newton PN. Causes of Fever in Rural Southern Laos. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 ; 93:517-20.
79. Moussa S, Brah S, Parola P, Gerolami R, Gamerre M, Boubli L, Ruiz JM, Ravaux I, Mokhtari S, Mancini J, Romera MH, Motte A, Tamalet C, Colson P. Epidemiological, clinical, virological features of hepatitis B newly diagnosed in 2011 in Marseille University hospitals, southeastern France. J Med Virol. 2015 [Epub ahead of print]
80. Mediannikov O, Socolovschi C, Edouard S, Fenollar F, Mouffok N, Bassene H, Diatta G, Tall A, Niangaly H, Doumbo O, Lekana-Douki JB, Znazen A, Sarih M, Ratmanov P, Richet H, Ndiath MO, Sokhna C, Parola P, Raoult D. Common epidemiology of Rickettsia felis infection and malaria, Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Nov;19(11):1775-83.
Detection and Surveillance of imported vector borne diseases – Travel Medicine
81. Gaci R, Delord M, Parola P, Brouqui P, Lagier JC. Extended Perineal Dermatobia hominis Myiasis in a Traveler Returning From South America. JAMA Dermatol. 2015 Sep 16. [Epub ahead of print].
82. Saïdani N, Griffiths K, Million M, Gautret P, Dubourg G, Parola P, Brouqui P, Lagier JC. Melioidosis as a travel-associated infection: Case report and review of the literature. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2015;13:367-81.
83. de Sainte Marie B, Delord M, Dubourg G, Gautret P, Parola P, Brouqui P, Lagier JC. Leptospirosis presenting as honeymoon fever. Int J Infect Dis. 2015;34:102-4.
84. Delord M, Socolovschi C, Parola P. Rickettsioses and Q fever in travelers (2004-2013). Travel Med Infect Dis. 2014;12:443-58.
85. Wichmann D, Poppert S, Von Thien H, Clerinx J, Dieckmann S, Jensenius M, Parola P, Richter J, Schunk M, Stich A, Zanger P, Burchard GD, Tannich E. Prospective European-wide multicentre study on a blood based real-time PCR for the diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis. BMC Infect Dis. 2013; 30;13:55.
86. Parola P, Renvoise A, Botelho-Nevers E, La SB, Desnues C, Raoult D. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus virophage seroconversion in travelers returning from Laos. Emerg Infect Dis 2012; 18:1500-1502.
87. Beltrame A, Angheben A, Casolari S, Castelli F, Magnani G, Gaiera G, Brillo F, Cattani G, Anselmi M, Tomasoni L, Prati F, Norberto C, Socolovschi C, Bisoffi Z, Raoult D, Parola P. Imported rickettsioses in Italy. Travel Med Infect Dis 2012; 10:201-204.
88. Walter G, Botelho-Nevers E, Socolovschi C, Raoult D, Parola P. Murine typhus in returned travelers: a report of thirty-two cases. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012; 86:1049-1053.
89. Perez-Molina JA, Perez-Ayala A, Parola P, Jackson Y, Odolini S, Lopez-Velez R. EuroTravNet: imported Chagas disease in nine European countries, 2008 to 2009. Euro Surveill 2011; 16.
90. Leangapichart T, Dia NM, Olaitan AO, Gautret P, Brouqui P, Rolain JM. Acquisition of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gut Microbiota of Pilgrims during the Hajj Pilgrimage of 2013. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Apr 22;60(5):3222-6.
91. Edouard S, Courtois GD, Gautret P, Jouve JL, Minodier P, Noël G, Roch A, Brouqui P, Stein A, Drancourt M, Fournier PE, Raoult D. High Prevalence of Mycoplasma faucium DNA in the Human Oropharynx. J Clin Microbiol. 2016 Jan;54(1):194-6.
92. de Sainte Marie B, Delord M, Dubourg G, Gautret P, Parola P, Brouqui P, Lagier JC. Leptospirosis presenting as honeymoon fever. Int J Infect Dis. 2015 May;34:102-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.03.018. Epub 2015 Mar 30.
93. Florescu SA, Popescu CP, Calistru P, Ceausu E, Nica M, Toderan A, Zaharia M, Parola P. Plasmodium vivax malaria in a Romanian traveller returning from Greece, August 2011. Euro Surveill 2011; 16.
94. Cohen-Bacrie S, Ben K, I, Botelho-Nevers E, Million M, Parola P, Brouqui P, Drancourt M. Imported extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype, Marseilles, France, 2011. Euro Surveill 2011; 16.
95. Gautret P, Raoult D. Tropheryma whipplei as a causative agent of travelers' diarrhea: further studies required. Reply to Razavi SM. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2015 Jan-Feb;13(1):114.
96. Edouard S, Prudent E, Gautret P, Memish ZA, Raoult D. Cost-effective pooling of DNA from nasopharyngeal swab samples for large-scale detection of bacteria by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2015 Mar;53(3):1002-4.
97. Henriey D, Delmont J, Gautret P. Does the use of alcohol-based hand gel sanitizer reduce travellers' diarrhea and gastrointestinal upset?: A preliminary survey. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2014 Sep-Oct;12(5):494-8. .
98. Odolini S, Gautret P, Kain KC, Smith K, Leder K, Jensenius M, Coyle CM, Castelli F, Matteelli A. Imported Plasmodium vivax malaria ex Pakistan. J Travel Med. 2014 Sep-Oct;21(5):314-7.
99. Delabre S, Parola P, Thiberville D, Brouqui P, Delmont J, Gautret P. Non-ophthalmological presentation of imported loiasis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2014 Jul-Aug;12(4):406-9.
100. Gautret P, Lagier JC, Benkouiten S, Fenollar F, Raoult D, Brouqui P. Does Tropheryma whipplei contribute to travelers' diarrhea?: A PCR analysis of paired stool samples in French travelers to Senegal.Travel Med Infect Dis. 2014 May-Jun;12(3):264-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2014.01.009. Epub 2014 Feb 28.
101. Gantois N, Rapp C, Gautret P, Ficko C, Savini H, Larreché S, Saidi R, Crevon L, Simon F. Imported loiasis in France: a retrospective analysis of 47 cases. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013 Nov-Dec;11(6):366-73.
102. Vernier M, Rossi-Tamisier M, Richet H, Brouqui P, Parola P, Bouamri Y, Colson P, Gautret P. Anti-hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in French expatriate workers. Int J Infect Dis. 2013 Nov;17(11):e1082-4.
103. Caillet-Gossot S, Laporte R, Noël G, Gautret P, Soula G, Delmont J, Faucher B, Parola P, Osei L, Minodier P. Family compliance with counseling for children traveling to the tropics. J Travel Med. 2013 May-Jun;20(3):171-6.
104. Aubry C, Gaudart J, Gaillard C, Delmont J, Parola P, Brouqui P, Gautret P. Demographics, health and travel characteristics of international travellers at a pre-travel clinic in Marseille, France. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2012 Sep;10(5-6):247-56.
105. Bouchaud O, Mühlberger N, Parola P, Calleri G, Matteelli A, Peyerl-Hoffmann G, Méchaï F, Gautret P, Clerinx J, Kremsner PG, Jelinek T, Kaiser A, Beltrame A, Schmid ML, Kern P, Probst M, Bartoloni A, Weinke T, Grobusch MP. Therapy of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Europe: MALTHER - a prospective observational multicentre study. Malar J. 2012 Jun 22;11:212.
106. Aubry C, Gautret P, Nougairede A, Dussouil AS, Botelho-Nevers E, Zandotti C, De Lamballerie X, Brouqui P, Parola P. 2012 outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Indian Ocean Islands: identification of Coxsackievirus A24 in a returned traveller. Euro Surveill. 2012 May 31;17(22).
107. Simon F, Mura M, Pagès F, Morand G, Truc P, Louis F, Gautret P. Urban transmission of human African trypanosomiasis, Gabon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Jan;18(1):165-7.
108. Simon F, Morand G, Roche C, Coton T, Kraemer P, Fournier PE, Gautret P. Leptospirosis in a French traveler returning from Mauritius. J Travel Med. 2012 Jan-Feb;19(1):69-71.
109. Botelho-Nevers E, Cassir N, Minodier P, Laporte R, Gautret P, Badiaga S, Thiberville DJ, Ninove L, Charrel R, Brouqui P. Measles among healthcare workers: a potential for nosocomial outbreaks. Euro Surveill. 2011 Jan 13;16(2). pii: 19764.
110. Mockenhaupt FP, Barbre KA, Jensenius M, Larsen CS, Barnett ED, Stauffer W, Rothe C, Asgeirsson H, Hamer DH, Esposito DH, Gautret P, Schlagenhauf P.Profile of illness in Syrian refugees: A GeoSentinel analysis, 2013 to 2015. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(10).
111. Gautret P, Mockenhaupt FP, von Sonnenburg F, Rothe C, Libman M, Van De Winkel K, Bottieau E, Grobusch MP, Hamer DH, Esposito DH, Parola P, Schlagenhauf P; GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Local and International Implications of Schistosomiasis Acquired in Corsica, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Oct;21(10):1865-8. doi: 10.3201/eid2110.150881.
112. Boggild AK, Esposito DH, Kozarsky PE, Ansdell V, Beeching NJ, Campion D, Castelli F, Caumes E, Chappuis F, Cramer JP, Gkrania-Klotsas E, Grobusch MP, Hagmann SH, Hynes NA, Lim PL, López-Vélez R, Malvy DJ, Mendelson M, Parola P, Sotir MJ, Wu HM, Hamer DH; GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Differential diagnosis of illness in travelers arriving from Sierra Leone, Liberia, or Guinea: a cross-sectional study from the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Jun 2;162(11):757-64.
113. Schlagenhauf P, Weld L, Gautret P, Parola P, Grobusch MP. Travel-associated infections in Europe--authors' reply. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015 Aug;15(8):879-80.
114. Gautret P, Harvey K, Pandey P, Lim PL, Leder K, Piyaphanee W, Shaw M, McDonald SC, Schwartz E, Esposito DH, Parola P; GeoSentinel Surveillance Network.Animal-associated exposure to rabies virus among travelers, 1997-2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Apr;21(4):569-77. doi: 10.3201/eid2104.141479.
115. Schlagenhauf P, Weld L, Goorhuis A, Gautret P, Weber R, von Sonnenburg F, Lopez-Vélez R, Jensenius M, Cramer JP, Field VK, Odolini S, Gkrania-Klotsas E, Chappuis F, Malvy D, van Genderen PJ, Mockenhaupt F, Jauréguiberry S, Smith C, Beeching NJ, Ursing J, Rapp C, Parola P, Grobusch MP; EuroTravNetTravel-associated infection presenting in Europe (2008-12): an analysis of EuroTravNet longitudinal, surveillance data, and evaluation of the effect of the pre-travel consultation. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015 Jan;15(1):55-64.
116. Warne B, Weld LH, Cramer JP, Field VK, Grobusch MP, Caumes E, Jensenius M, Gautret P, Schlagenhauf P, Castelli F, Lalloo DG, Ursing J, Chappuis F, von Sonnenburg F, López-Vélez R, Rapp C, Smith KC, Parola P, Gkrania-Klotsas E; EuroTravNet Network. Travel-related infection in European travelers, EuroTravNet 2011. J Travel Med. 2014 Jul-Aug;21(4):248-54. doi: 10.1111/jtm.12120. Epub 2014 Apr 20.
117. Jensenius M, Han PV, Schlagenhauf P, Schwartz E, Parola P, Castelli F, von Sonnenburg F, Loutan L, Leder K, Freedman DO; GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Acute and potentially life-threatening tropical diseases in western travelers--a GeoSentinel multicenter study, 1996-2011. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;88(2):397-404.
118. Matteelli A, Schlagenhauf P, Carvalho AC, Weld L, Davis XM, Wilder-Smith A, Barnett ED, Parola P, Pandey P, Han P, Castelli F; GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Travel-associated sexually transmitted infections: an observational cross-sectional study of the GeoSentinel surveillance database. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13(3):205-13.
119.Odolini S, Parola P, Gkrania-Klotsas E, Caumes E, Schlagenhauf P, Lopez-Velez R, Burchard GD, Santos-O'Connor F, Weld L, von SF, Field V, de VP, Jensenius M, Loutan L, Castelli F. Travel-related imported infections in Europe, EuroTravNet 2009. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18:468-474.
120. Esposito D, Freedman D, Neumayr A, Parola P. Ongoing outbreak of an acute muscular Sarcocystis-like illness among travellers returning from Tioman Island, Malaysia, 2011-2012. Euro Surveill 2012; 17.
121. Savini H, Gautret P, Gaudart J, Field V, Castelli F, López-Vélez R, Lim PL, Shaw M, von Sonnenburg F, Loutan L, Simon F; GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Travel-associated diseases, Indian Ocean Islands, 1997-2010.Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Aug;19(8):1297-301. doi: 10.3201/eid1908.121739.
122. Schwartz E, Meltzer E, Mendelson M, Tooke A, Steiner F, Gautret P, Friedrich-Jaenicke B, Libman M, Bin H, Wilder-Smith A, Gubler Dj, Freedman DO, Parola P. Detection on four continents of dengue fever cases related to an ongoing outbreak in Luanda, Angola, March to May 2013. Euro Surveill. 2013 May 23;18(21). pii: 20488.
123. McCarthy AE, Weld LH, Barnett ED, So H, Coyle C, Greenaway C, Stauffer W, Leder K, Lopez-Velez R, Gautret P, Castelli F, Jenks N, Walker PF, Loutan L, Cetron M; GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Spectrum of illness in international migrants seen at GeoSentinel clinics in 1997-2009, part 2: migrants resettled internationally and evaluated for specific health concerns. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Apr;56(7):925-33.
124. Gautret P, Cramer JP, Field V, Caumes E, Jensenius M, Gkrania-Klotsas E, de Vries PJ, Grobusch MP, Lopez-Velez R, Castelli F, Schlagenhauf P, Hervius Askling H, von Sonnenburg F, Lalloo DG, Loutan L, Rapp C, Basto F, Santos O'Connor F, Weld L, Parola P; EuroTravNet Network. Infectious diseases among travellers and migrants in Europe, EuroTravNet 2010. Euro Surveill. 2012 Jun 28;17(26). pii: 20205.
125. Gautret P, Gaudart J, Leder K, Schwartz E, Castelli F, Lim PL, Murphy H, Keystone J, Cramer J, Shaw M, Boddaert J, von Sonnenburg F, Parola P; GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Travel-associated illness in older adults (>60 y). J Travel Med. 2012 May-Jun;19(3):169-77.
126. Boggild AK, Castelli F, Gautret P, Torresi J, von Sonnenburg F, Barnett ED, Greenaway CA, Lim PL, Schwartz E, Wilder-Smith A, Wilson ME; GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Latitudinal patterns of travel among returned travelers with influenza: results from the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network, 1997-2007. J Travel Med. 2012 Jan-Feb;19(1):4-8.
127. Griffiths K, Charrel R, Lagier JC, Nougairede A, Simon F, Parola P, Brouqui P, Gautret P. Infections in symptomatic travelers returning from the Arabian peninsula to France: A retrospective cross-sectional study.Travel Med Infect Dis. 2016 May 14. [Epub ahead of print]
128. Gautret P, Benkouiten S, Griffiths K, Sridhar S. The inevitable Hajj cough: Surveillance data in French pilgrims, 2012-2014.Travel Med Infect Dis. 2015 Nov-Dec;13(6):485-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2015.09.008. Epub 2015 Oct 3.
129. Gautret P, Sridhar S, Benkouiten S. Administration of pneumococcal vaccine in Hajj. Reply to Razavi SM and Salamati P.Travel Med Infect Dis. 2015 Sep-Oct;13(5):431.
130. Verhoeven PO, Gautret P, Haddar CH, Benkouiten S, Gagnaire J, Belhouchat K, Grattard F, Charrel R, Pozzetto B, Drali T, Lucht F, Brouqui P, Memish ZA, Berthelot P, Botelho-Nevers E. Molecular dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in Hajj pilgrims. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015 Jul;21(7):650.e5-8.
131. Memish ZA, Assiri AM, Gautret P. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data. Int J Infect Dis. 2015 May;34:99-101.
132. Olaitan AO, Dia NM, Gautret P, Benkouiten S, Belhouchat K, Drali T, Parola P, Brouqui P, Memish Z, Raoult D, Rolain JM. Acquisition of extended-spectrum cephalosporin- and colistin-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Newport by pilgrims during Hajj. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2015 Jun;45(6):600-4.
133. Sridhar S, Belhouchat K, Drali T, Benkouiten S, Parola P, Brouqui P, Gautret P. French Hajj pilgrims' experience with pneumococcal infection and vaccination: A knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) evaluation. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2015 May-Jun;13(3):251-5.
134. Memish ZA, Assiri A, Turkestani A, Yezli S, Al Masri M, Charrel R, Drali T, Gaudart J, Edouard S, Parola P, Gautret P. Mass gathering and globalization of respiratory pathogens during the 2013 Hajj. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015 Jun;21(6):571.e1-8.
135. Gautret P Religious mass gatherings: connecting people and infectious agents. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015 Feb;21(2):107-8.
136. Sridhar S, Benkouiten S, Belhouchat K, Drali T, Memish ZA, Parola P, Brouqui P, Gautret P.Foot ailments during Hajj: A short report. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2015 Sep;5(3):291-4.
137. Angelakis E, Yasir M, Azhar EI, Papadioti A, Bibi F, Aburizaiza AS, Metidji S, Memish ZA, Ashshi AM, Hassan AM, Harakeh S, Gautret P, Raoult D. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and identification of new bacteria species in air samples from Makkah, Saudi Arabia.BMC Res Notes. 2014 Dec 9;7:892. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-892.
138. Benkouiten S, Charrel R, Belhouchat K, Drali T, Nougairede A, Salez N, Memish ZA, Al Masri M, Fournier PE, Raoult D, Brouqui P, Parola P, Gautret P. Respiratory viruses and bacteria among pilgrims during the 2013 Hajj. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Nov;20(11):1821-7.
139. Benkouiten S, Gautret P, Belhouchat K, Drali T, Nougairede A, Salez N, Memish ZA, Al Masri M, Raoult D, Brouqui P, Parola P, Charrel RN. Comparison of nasal swabs with throat swabs for the detection of respiratory viruses by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR in adult Hajj pilgrims. J Infect. 2015 Feb;70(2):207-10.
140. Gautret P, Benkouiten S, Parola P, Brouqui P, Memish Z, Raoult D. Occurrence of Tropheryma whipplei during diarrhea in Hajj pilgrims: a PCR analysis of paired rectal swabs. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2014 Sep-Oct;12(5):481-4.
141. Gautret P, Charrel R, Benkouiten S, Belhouchat K, Nougairede A, Drali T, Salez N, Memish ZA, Al Masri M, Lagier JC, Million M, Raoult D, Brouqui P, Parola P. Lack of MERS coronavirus but prevalence of influenza virus in French pilgrims after 2013 Hajj. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Apr;20(4):728-30.
142. Benkouiten S, Gautret P, Belhouchat K, Drali T, Salez N, Memish ZA, Al Masri M, Fournier PE, Brouqui P. Acquisition of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in pilgrims during the 2012 Hajj. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;58(4):e106-9. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit749. Epub 2013 Nov 17.
143. Gautret P, Benkouiten S, Salaheddine I, Belhouchat K, Drali T, Parola P, Brouqui P. Hajj pilgrims knowledge about Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, August to September 2013. Euro Surveill. 2013 Oct 10;18(41):20604.
144. Gautret P, Benkouiten S, Salaheddine I, Parola P, Brouqui P. Preventive measures against MERS-CoV for Hajj pilgrims. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Oct;13(10):829-31.
145. Benkouiten S, Charrel R, Belhouchat K, Drali T, Salez N, Nougairede A, Zandotti C, Memish ZA, al Masri M, Gaillard C, Parola P, Brouqui P, Gautret P. Circulation of respiratory viruses among pilgrims during the 2012 Hajj pilgrimage. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Oct;57(7):992-1000.
146. Gautret P, Parola P, Brouqui P. Relative risk for influenza like illness in French Hajj pilgrims compared to non-Hajj attending controls during the 2009 influenza pandemic. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013 Mar-Apr;11(2):95-7.
147. Gautret P, Charrel R, Belhouchat K, Drali T, Benkouiten S, Nougairede A, Zandotti C, Memish ZA, al Masri M, Gaillard C, Brouqui P, Parola P. Lack of nasal carriage of novel corona virus (HCoV-EMC) in French Hajj pilgrims returning from the Hajj 2012, despite a high rate of respiratory symptoms. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Jul;19(7):E315-7.
148. Gautret P, Benkouiten S, Gaillard C, Parola P, Brouqui P. Camel milk-associated infection risk perception and knowledge in French Hajj pilgrims.Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013 Jun;13(6):425-7.
149. Gautret P, Bauge M, Simon F, Benkouiten S, Parola P, Brouqui P. Travel reported by pilgrims from Marseille, France before and after the 2010 Hajj. J Travel Med. 2012 Mar-Apr;19(2):130-2
150. Gautret P, Bauge M, Simon F, Benkouiten S, Valéro R, Parola P, Brouqui P. Overweight and obesity in French Hajj pilgrims. J Immigr Minor Health. 2013 Feb;15(1):215-8.
151. Gautret P, Bauge M, Simon F, Benkouiten S, Parola P, Brouqui P. Pneumococcal vaccination and Hajj. Int J Infect Dis. 2011 Oct;15(10):e730.
152. Gautret P, Parola P, Brouqui P. Vaccination acceptability in Hajj pilgrims. J Travel Med. 2011 May-Jun;18(3):226. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8305.2011.00505.x. Epub 2011 Apr 11.
153. Gautret P, Vu Hai V, Sani S, Doutchi M, Parola P, Brouqui P. Protective measures against acute respiratory symptoms in French pilgrims participating in the Hajj of 2009. J Travel Med. 2011 Jan-Feb;18(1):53-5.
154. Blaise A, Parola P, Brouqui P, Gautret P. Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis for Travelers Injured by Nonhuman Primates, Marseille, France, 2001-2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Aug;21(8):1473-6.
155. Mendoza K, Benkouiten S, Brouqui P, Gautret P. Epidemiology of Injuries Caused by Mammals Treated in Emergency Departments in Marseille, France. Wounds. 2015 Sep;27(9):253-7.
156. Gautret P, Bourhy H. Rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis is not Indicated Following Fox-Related Injuries Occurring in France. Zoonoses Public Health. 2015 Aug;62(5):415-6. doi: 10.1111/zph.12137. Epub 2015 May 6. No abstract available.
157. Ribadeau Dumas F, N'Diaye DS, Paireau J, Gautret P, Bourhy H, Le Pen C, Yazdanpanah Y. Cost-effectiveness of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in the context of very low rabies risk: A decision-tree model based on the experience of France. Vaccine. 2015 May 11;33(20):2367-78.
158. Gautret P, Carrara P, Parola P. Long incubation in imported human rabies. Ann Neurol. 2014 Feb;75(2):324-5.
159.Simon F, Gautret P, Nicolas X, Ausset P, De Pina JJ, Demortière E. Crossing the Gulf of Aden: cutaneous infections in African migrant shipwreck survivors.Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013 Nov-Dec;11(6):431-4. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2013.07.005. Epub 2013 Aug 2.
160. Gautret P, Parola P. Intradermal route for rabies vaccination should be generalized in travelers. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 May;56(10):1508-9.
161. Gautret P, Le Roux S, Faucher B, Gaudart J, Brouqui P, Parola P. Epidemiology of urban dog-related injuries requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in Marseille, France. Int J Infect Dis. 2013 Mar;17(3):e164-7.
162. Piyaphanee W, Kittitrakul C, Lawpoolsri S, Gautret P, Kashino W, Tangkanakul W, Charoenpong P, Ponam T, Sibunruang S, Phumratanaprapin W, Tantawichien T.Risk of potentially rabid animal exposure among foreign travelers in Southeast Asia.PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6(9):e1852.
163. Gautret P, Vu Hai V, Soavi MJ, Parola P, Brouqui P. [Influence of age on antibody titers following rabies post-exposure prophylaxis]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2012 Oct;60(5):322-3.
164. Gautret P, Labreuil C, Seyni M, Delmont J, Parola P, Brouqui P. Effect of media warnings on rabies postexposure prophylaxis, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Jun;17(6):1131-2. doi: 10.3201/eid/1706.101962. No abstract available.
165. Gautret P, Tantawichien T, Vu Hai V, Piyaphanee W. Determinants of pre-exposure rabies vaccination among foreign backpackers in Bangkok, Thailand. Vaccine. 2011 May 23;29(23):3931-4.
Survey and prevention of arthropod borne diseases in the homeless
166. Drali R, Benkouiten S, Badiaga S, Bitam I, Rolain JM, Brouqui P. Detection of a knockdown resistance mutation associated with permethrin resistance in the body louse Pediculus humanus corporis by use of melting curve analysis genotyping. J Clin Microbiol 2012 Jul;50(7):2229-33.
167. Benkouiten S, Drali R, Badiaga S, Veracx A, Giorgi R, Raoult D, et al. Effect of permethrin-impregnated underwear on body lice in sheltered homeless persons: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA Dermatol 2014 Mar;150(3):273-9.
168. Veracx A, Rivet R, McCoy KD, Brouqui P, Raoult D. Evidence that head and body lice on homeless persons have the same genotype. PLoS One 2012;7(9):e45903.
169. Drali R, Boutellis A, Raoult D, Rolain JM, Brouqui P. Distinguishing body lice from head lice by multiplex real-time PCR analysis of the Phum_PHUM540560 gene. PLoS One 2013;8(2):e58088.
170. Drali R, Sangare AK, Boutellis A, Angelakis E, Veracx A, Socolovschi C, et al. Bartonella quintana in body lice from scalp hair of homeless persons, France. Emerg Infect Dis 2014 May;20(5):907-8.
171. Keita AK, Brouqui P, Badiaga S, Benkouiten S, Ra